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王佳冬中文博客

基于互联网的社会性交际网络设计(3)

by on Oct 10 , 2016 , under 学术 , 25 views , Leave a Comment , 网址太长?

最近人在外度假,突然看到了大学毕业时的论文,整理了一下,通过三次把内容发上来吧。由于时隔将近10年的时间,也就当老古董看看啦,千万别认真,哈哈!(省去目录、摘要、翻译等内容)

5 SNS盈利模式初探

毫无疑问,SNS是现在互联网世界里最闪耀的“明星”,2008年5月才成立的开心网,不到半年用户就从零扩展到千万级别。在几年前的门户时代,这个数字至少要花上个三四年,的确很让人惊叹SNS的魅力。用户是互联网公司的最大资源,拥有了用户,也就等于占领了未来市场营收的高地。

尽管是网络明星,但众多SNS网站大多数都还没有实现盈利,但是在他们看来,这些拥有庞大会员及流量且还在不断增长的SNS网站,未来一定是一只只能下“金蛋”的鸡,现在要做的就是准备好充足的“饲料”、精心培育。

因此,在搭建完一个简单的SNS平台之后,网站主需要考虑的便是盈利模式,毕竟有了收入才能让网站发展地更好,下面就来探究在SNS平台上的三种新型的盈利模式。

5.1 植入式广告

现在大热的开心网是典型的“人玩人”模式,而它的主要的收入就是广告。除了首页上的大型品牌广告之外,开心网随处可见各种各样的植入式广告:“争车位”组件中的汽车广告、“开心农场”组件中的饮料广告,“买房子”组件中的电器广告,“买卖朋友”组件中的快餐广告、“开心餐厅”组件中的美食广告等等,这些植入式的广告就这样慢慢地在你与好友一起玩社交游戏的过程中见缝插针地进入你的眼帘。可见这些社交游戏组件在设计之初就已经预留了广告的接口——真实的车型,真实的楼盘等,为了以后方便与广告商进行对接。

商品作为道具出现在游戏中,一个比较好的用户体验便是,用户不会有看硬广告那样的厌恶感。通过在游戏中的展示,用户可以对品牌以及相关的商品产生简单和明确的认识。比如在争车位组件中,你用虚拟货币买了一辆车,那么你每次进行游戏操作时都会看到它,你所在停车位的好友也都能看到它,这显然是广告主乐意看到的,它保证了品牌以及相关商品的曝光率和到达率。

其实,“争车位”、“买房子”、“开心农场”这些组件,每个都是无聊的小游戏罢了,但有了好友参与和互动后,立刻就变得其乐无穷起来。而在这种相互打闹社交游戏之中,各类广告自然地就进入每一个玩家的视野,而且还不让你感到厌恶。

SNS网站是通过朋友间的互动和病毒营销壮大自己的,这种互动越多,对广告商的吸引力也就越大。2008年12月,开心网接到的第一笔广告车型订单是当时刚上市的别克新君威。短短5天时间内,别克新君威就在开心网上卖出了“50万辆”,是当时“争车位”中最热卖的车型。在新君威的示范之下,开心网陆续接到了沃尔沃、晶锐等10多款车型广告。

如今,这种植入式的广告在SNS网站中被广泛地使用,并且取得了非常好的效果,无疑成为SNS中最显眼的盈利模式。

5.2 增值服务

与开心网不同,模仿MySpace“人泡人”模式的51.com则在增值服务上大做文章。

他们的用户很年轻,钱也不多,但他们愿意花钱去装扮自己的空间,然后去参加一些活动,彰显自己鲜明的个性,他们平均年龄只有21岁,多数来自二、三线的城市,其中三分之一还是在校的大学生。

要想拥有体现个性的VIP功能,用户就需要向网站支付一定的费用。用户不仅愿意打扮自己的空间,更乐意在社交游戏中购买游戏道具,这跟网游的道具收费模式相似,当你想快速升级时,最简单、最直接的方法就是购买各种游戏道具。目前,这种增值服务收费已占到 51.com全部收入的七成左右。

除了自行开发一些可增值服务的插件之外,51.com也会吸引第三方的加入。约有几千人的业余开发队伍为其提供了三百多个应用插件,而这些插件销售游戏道具时,需要跟51.com实行五五分账。

人人网也十分青睐于发展第三方插件应用,然后与开发者分成。像“记账”这样的应用,能为用户提供便利,但如果用户群体不大,自己花心思去做反而会得不偿失。如果将人人网比作是沃尔玛,那么各路开发团队就是供货商,人人网只须将门店打理干净,让用户享受到便利的购物环境,产品的事情就交给别人去解决。

以“开心农场”应用为例,自2008年12月推出以来,现在已有一千三百多万的用户安装了这个组件,每天活跃用户超过三百万,这个小游戏现在每月都能带来七十五万元的收入。当然,人人网并没有满足于一个好应用,人人网一方面在引入竞争者,同时也宣布将所有应用外包给第三方团队开发,从2009年3月开始,甚至允许第三方团队在应用中自己加入广告。

按照利润分成的约定,增值服务卖得越多,人人网也就赚得越多。人人网现在的第三方应用还是娱乐型插件为主,未来会鼓励开发团队去做一些文学、艺术方面的应用,相信增值服务这个宝藏人人网会一直深挖下去。

显然,SNS平台上的增值服务与传统的增值服务有所不同,由于社交游戏中都是以朋友为基础,大家都不想在这样的游戏中输给别人,这就给了增值服务持续生长的空间,因此SNS上的增值服务潜力非常大,必将成为SNS网站的重要收入。

5.3 人脉商机

登陆开心网或人人网的初衷都是为了放松自己,如果你想在职场上有所帮助,可以看看若邻网。开心网、人人网以及51.com的生财之道各有差异,但有个共同点就是都建立在娱乐的基础之上,相比之下,商务型SNS若邻网的生意经则是找人。

为了不破坏职场SNS网站的初衷,若邻网从建站到现在从来没有加入过一个娱乐插件,它的业务重心一直是搜罗企业精英。若邻网的目的是为用户搭建一个人脉网络,在这个人脉网络内,用户可以发展新的商务关系,比如寻找客户、供应商,或是进行应聘、招聘、发布商业信息等。

而这些人脉资源本身就是商机,尽管若邻网的用户规模不如一般的SNS网站大,但它的很多用户是中高层职业人士,所以若邻网五个用户的潜在价值能抵得上一般SNS网站五十个用户的价值,职场人士是若邻网的价值提供者。

若邻网的第一个收入来源是精准广告营销,由于它的用户都是有较高消费能力的人群,所以现在若邻网已得到了诸如卡地亚等奢侈品牌的信赖,2009年以来这类奢侈品的广告收入每月都以100%到300%的速度迅速增长。

广告还不是若邻网最看重的收入,按照规划,若邻网还是要在拓展人脉资源上做文章。当用户在若邻网搜到自己向要结识的人后,若邻网就会根据用户的人脉网络,提供一个结识此人的路径。比如你要找的人D,而D跟你的朋友B认识,那么你就可以请求B将你引荐给D。按照这个思路,若邻网对用户交际关系用“度”来衡量,一度是本来就认识的好友,二度是朋友的朋友,三度则是朋友的朋友的朋友,而根据“六度分割理论”,认识一个人肯定不会超过六度。

这也是若邻网作为商务SNS与一般SNS的不同之处,一般SNS的交际关系到一度或二度就结束了。通过拓展人脉的方式,若邻网可以探索着向用户收取一定的费用,比如付费用户可以直接跟搜索到的人联系,或者他们可以得到更好的宣传,得以结识更多的商务人士。

若邻网除了可以用人脉来找人,还可以用人脉来招人。在若邻网上,当企业需要招人时,若邻网可以帮助企业在自己职员的三度人脉中推广,并为其推荐合适的人员,这样若邻网就能向企业收费,这个模式类似一个猎头公司。

SNS网站与其他网站最大的不同之处在于用户与用户之间存在交际关系,既然如此,交际网络自然会成为SNS网站的主要盈利点之一,特别是那些专注某个领域的、地域性的SNS网站,这样的盈利模式会带来可观的收入。

纵观SNS网站的三种新型盈利模式,不由地让人感觉到网络营销的未来就在SNS网站!

6 总结

SNS可以说是当下互联网最火的概念之一,的确,SNS的红火程度是所有人没有预料到的,有人说SNS的出现改变了地球的运转规律,这话虽然有些夸张,但是我们可以感觉到SNS已经慢慢地成为生活中不可或缺的一部分,正在改变着我们现有的生活方式。

每个人都希望拥有自己的SNS平台,当然,每个人也都渴望从SNS中赚钱,可并不是每个人都能成功,所以那么多的SNS网站如今家喻户晓的也就那么几个。

任何一个志向在SNS领域有所作为的人,都必须深入了解SNS的基本概念、SNS的传播模式和SNS的盈利模式,这些都是最基础的东西,更重要的是要学会竞品分析、精准定位、用户研究,如果一味地追求技术上的突破只会越陷越深。

当然,技术的成分不能被否定,因为从用户体验角度来讲,用户需求到功能设计再到技术实现是一条“生产链”,缺一不可,如果说功能已经设计完毕然而技术不能实现的话未免会成为业界的笑话。

本文中使用的UCenter Home也只适用于私人的、小型的SNS平台,如果要做一个大型的SNS平台的话,势必要自己组建一个强大的技术团队去开发。当然,所有的东西都是守恒的,利用UCenter Home搭建SNS平台的话成本并不是很高,而自己组建团队去开发的话成本就显得有点高了,所以说到最后还是要看站点最初的定位,要按照自己的计划一步步地去执行,不能半途而废改变初始定位。

设计、搭建一个社会性交际网络其实并不难,只要肯投入一定的时间,相信任何一个人都能出色地完成,而真正难的是运营、维护一个社会性交际网络,这里需要管理知识、市场分析能力、技术开发能力、商业头脑等。

至于国内外SNS将如何发展,让我们拭目以待。

原文及译文

Facebook’s success

A January 2009 Compete.com study ranked Facebook as the most used social network by worldwide monthly active users, followed by MySpace. Entertainment Weekly put it on its end-of-the-decade, “best-of” list, saying, “How on earth did we stalk our exes, remember our co-workers’ birthdays, bug our friends, and play a rousing game of Scrabulous before Facebook?”
How Facebook could crush MySpace, Yahoo!, and Google.

There comes a time in every young person’s life—soon after teething, usually—when she must make a momentous decision: MySpace or Facebook? One’s preference is a matter of taste. MySpace, if you ask me, is a spam-infested state of nature. The average user page comes with a crapload of embedded music and video players, some seizure-inducing wallpaper, and a bunch of friend requests from “models” who want to “get to know you.” (It also happens to be nearly three times the size of Facebook.) Facebook, on the other hand, is much less customizable but also a lot more reassuring. The interface is comfy, sturdy, and attractive without being showy—the kind of social network you’d bring home to Mom. Think of it as the Volvo of social networking.
But a few weeks ago, Facebook pulled a MySpace-like maneuver. The site tore down its walls and opened its pages to outside developers. A new tool kit called Facebook Platform allows any programmer—a bored student or a multimillion-dollar corporation—to peel back the site’s breastplate, poke around, and rearrange the innards. None of the nearly 900 (and counting) programs released so far are particularly life-changing—among the most popular add-ons are a “Graffiti” program (downloaded by more than 3.3 million people as of this writing) that lets you doodle other people’s profiles and an “Honesty Box” that lets your friends say, anonymously, what they really think of you. Collectively, though, these programs are hugely significant. If the site figures out a smart way to deploy these mini applications, it will be more than just a social network. Facebook will turn into a do-everything site with the potential to devour the whole Internet.

For all the hype about Second Life, Facebook and MySpace are already the closest things we have to “virtual worlds.” Sure, Facebook doesn’t have large-breasted 3D avatars and a sky and buildings and its own currency. But the whole point of the Internet is that you don’t need all that stuff. If I want to buy something, I go to Amazon, not some virtual store. Even before Facebook allowed outside applications, it had millions of users who basically lived inside their profile pages. The typical Facebooker spends hours each day sending messages, posting “notes” or blog entries, and uploading photos, along with trolling for freshmen girls who love the Decemberists. Facebook Platform simply expands this world. (According to the Wall Street Journal, the site’s user base has jumped from 24 million to 27 million since Platform launched.) Now you can check the local weather, feed and nurture a virtual pet rabbit, and see what music your friends are listening to. With just a few more additions—e-mail, an instant-messaging program, RSS feeds—Facebook obsessives will become total shut-ins. Users wouldn’t have to venture out into the Internet; the Internet would come to them.

If Facebook does decide to become an all-encompassing portal, it would be a bit late to the party. Customizable homepages like My Yahoo! and iGoogle already let you cram your favorite Web stuff onto a single page; there’s also the trendy start-up NetVibes, which Slate’s Reihan Salam called “the ultimate mashup.” But a Facebook homepage would have a huge intrinsic advantage: The social network is already built in. Sure, the other portals incorporate Gmail and BBC headlines and YouTube searches and podcast directories. By adding a social context to all of this content, however, Facebook would immediately trump its main competition. With Facebook’s News Feed, it’s elementary to see when your friends sign up for a new product or service. That means the best add-ons become viral instantly—Platform’s biggest success story so far, a music sharing app called iLike, started growing at the rate of 200,000 users a day.

It’s a certainty, too, that outside developers will fall over themselves to deliver great content to Facebook users. The site’s growing audience, sterling reputation, and clean look are catnip for corporations.What kind of stuff will companies offer to Facebook users? Every major corporation, it seems, is trying to add social networking to their core services. Netflix, for example, allows you to keep tabs on what your “friends” are watching. But it makes much more sense to peddle your services on a huge, prebuilt network—no wonder Netflix users can now check their buddies’ queues on Facebook. And we’re not only talking about businesses: Just look at Barack Obama’s campaign. Thousands of users have downloaded the Obama Facebook application since late May, and hundreds of thousands more have joined Obama-themed groups. Compare that to the relatively paltry 70,000 registered users on the candidate’s custom-made social network, My.BarackObama.com. Using the Facebook network as a delivery system, it seems, is easier and more productive than creating the system yourself.

For me, an influx of outside content seems like the obvious path to a bigger, better Facebook. But the recent deluge of applications has created a big backlash. I count 15 groups started in the past month, all variations on a theme: “Enough with the Facebook Applications Already!” Even my friends have started complaining. When I added a 12th application to my lineup—I think it was “Pets”—one wall-poster labeled me an “applications slut.” Some of this sentiment, dubbed by one developer as “app fatigue,” is just a product of the site’s growing pains. But it also reflects a real frustration with Facebook Platform, a sense that it hasn’t reached its potential. Most of what we’ve seen so far looks like refuse from an airport gift shop—cutesy Tamagotchi imitations and fortune cookies and virtual presents.

Don’t get me wrong, I’m glad I can doodle multicolored genitalia on my friends’ Graffiti walls. But come on, Facebook, where’s all the useful stuff? It’s reassuring to hear that Facebook plans to add a “wallet” feature for processing online payments. But for the site to really take off, it needs to have an instant messaging system as easy to use as Google’s, as well as an embeddable inbox that connects to Hotmail, Yahoo!, and the like. The fact that Facebook hasn’t introduced some sort of RSS feed for news—real news, not News Feed news—also borders on inexcusable. It’s not clear to me why Facebook hasn’t incorporated these seemingly essential elements, and neither their press office nor CEO Mark Zuckerberg (or the guy he probably pays to handle his profile) responded to my inquiries. But I’d be confused and disappointed if these projects aren’t in the pipeline, especially considering the rumors that Yahoo! wants to buy MySpace. A merger of that size would dwarf Facebook at the outset. But in the long run, if there’s going to be a supernetwork, I’d much rather have it be clean and navigable like Facebook than spam-filled and occasionally creepy like MySpace. If Facebook adds e-mail, IM, and RSS, it’s one step closer to becoming as comprehensive as Yahoo! and as popular as MySpace. The rest of the Internet might as well surrender.

The power of social networking sites is growing

Mainstream or “old” media face a fork in the road. Last week the nature and scale of the dilemma were vividly illustrated by a number of disparate but related incidents.First we had the case of the Guardian being on the wrong end of a pre-existing injunction apparently preventing parliamentary reporting. The Twitterverse took up the cause, unearthed helpful links and applied the steady pressure of public scrutiny to the company seeking the injunction, Trafigura, and their solicitors Carter-Ruck. As editor-in-chief Alan Rusbridger put it: “Trafigura thought it was buying silence. A combination of old media – the Guardian – and new – Twitter – turned attempted obscurity into mass notoriety.”

In a second incident of old and new media working in counterpoint rather than harmony, Daily Mail columnist Jan Moir found her article about the death of Boyzone singer Stephen Gately, which provoked a storm of protest over its apparently homophobic under- and overtones, again circulated to a worldwide and largely hostile audience which deluged the Mail’s website – but more tellingly turned its crass editorial judgment into the fodder for web outrage and a lobbying of advertisers.Moir, or her editors, or both, misjudged the speed and breadth of the real-time web and social media in their power to highlight and pressurise at speed and with force. To see the Daily Mail taught a lesson about public outrage in the electronic age would no doubt have raised a weak, battered smile at the BBC.

The statistical reinforcement of what lies behind the Trafigura and Gately incidents arrived as Moir was being retweeted around the web. Ofcom reported that social networking is rising rapidly as a mainstream activity for many people on the web. Now 38% of all online users have a social networking profile, as opposed to 22% two years ago, 41% are using networking sites daily and the average time spent there is going up. Facebook, the second largest site in the UK after Google, is the main beneficiary of this trend. The report, however, suggested that fewer people were using the web for information for work or studies – a drop from 48% to 35%.

I suspect, though, that something else is happening – more of what at one time was “research” for work has actually become part of the time spent on social networks, or with “social media”. So links through Twitter, what your friends or peers are discussing through Facebook, are absorbing some of this time too.This is a huge moment for publishers, because it raises the question: what are you going to do about it? Recently, research in the US commissioned by the BlogHer network, iVillage and Compass, into women on the web showed that women are the most active users of social media and networking sites. This prompted the Harvard Neiman Labs (which looks at trends and thinking around the new media) to ask: what are news organisations doing about this?It is an even more urgent question for some news outlets in the US, where the Washington Post’s online presence was last week overhauled in numbers by Arianna Huffington’s Huffington Post, the four-year-old political blogging site.

And here is the fork in the road. On the one branch there is a new hierarchy of communication controlled by the user, and for the older hierarchies there is the dilemma of whether to literally “follow the crowd” or to try to make the crowd follow you, which might be more lucrative or at least stable in the short term, but in the long term risks irrelevance and extinction. If only there were a sat nav for cyberspace this junction would not be the accident blackspot it is threatening to be.
Facebook helps brands with “demand generation”

Facebook,the social networking website, aims to help brands that advertise on its pages improve their awareness and consideration levels among consumers at the”demand generation” stage of the purchase process,Sheryl Sandberg, its chief operating officer, has said.

ThePalo Alto-based service currently boasts some 300 million members worldwide,and Sandberg reported that around half of this audience visits its portal atleast once a day.Morespecifically, the typical user spends 5.8 hours viewing material hosted on itsplatform each month, compared with the total of 3.3 hours recorded by Yahoo, ranked in second place on this measure.”Thereare other places on the web where you can get reach and audience. CertainlyYahoo offers that,” said Sandberg.”What we have is deep engagement. We are by far the place where people spend the mosttime on the web.”

As previously reported, a growing number of advertisers in the US have run formal campaigns on Facebook this year.Sandbergadded that, when it comes to using the Web 2.0 property in this way, marketers”certainly get it more than they did a year ago.””We’regrowing our users, and that’s helping us a lot, and our ad products haveimproved tremendously … in a tough economy, advertisers and marketers arelooking for value,” she said.

Morespecifically, Facebook’s coo suggested that online services could target different elements of the advertising “funnel”.At the top of this “funnel”, she argued, the aim is to reach as many consumers as possible, thereby creating consideration and demand, while the bottom delivers the final purchase.Google,the search giant, serves those at the latter stage of this process, and who areinterested in looking for, and acquiring, a specific product, while Facebook can help those at the beginning.

“If you look at global adspend, it’s about a $640 billion annual business,”Sandberg said, adding that “it’s 10% demand fulfilment.”By contrast, “where we are playing in the ad market is in that demand generation, which is the top 90%,” she added.This strategy should allow Facebook to build on the impetus gained through the fact that a large number of major brands have already established free profiles and groups on its site.Starbucks,the coffee house chain, and Papa John’s, the pizza company, are examples of businesses that are taking an “increasingly authentic” approach to this endeavour, she added.Her advice to organisations looking to make an impact in this way were to ensure they added regular posts over the long-term, rather than investing a lot of energy in short bursts.

With regard to Twitter, the microblogging utility, Sandberg said the two webpioneers were “part of the same movement … real-time information sharedquickly.”However,she also asserted that Facebook is a place to share information with friends,while Twitter is “much more of a broadcast-to-everyone kind of thing.”

社交网站Facebook的成功

2009年1月Compete.com的一个研究报告称,Facebook是全球每月的活跃用户最多的社交网站,MySpace紧随其后。《娱乐周刊》把它列为“过去十年最佳”,并说“在facebook之前,我们如何在地球上做到悄悄走近往日恋情、记住同事的生日、偷看我们的好友、跟朋友一起玩web游戏?”
Facebook如何击败Myspace,Yahoo!和Google?

每个年轻人通常刚脱稚气必须作出一个重大决定:选择MySpace或Facebook?一个人的选择也是品味问题。MySpace,如果你问我,那可是一个垃圾邮件满天飞的蛮荒之地。一般的使用者页面都充斥着大量处于加载状态的诸如内嵌的音乐和视频播放器之类的废物,一些捡诱导壁纸,以及大量来自那些想要“认识你”的“模特儿“的好友请求。(其发生的频率是Facebook的近三倍。)Facebook,从另一方面来说,它少了许多定身量造,但是也变得更加安全可靠。它的界面适意、稳固,有吸引力同时少了许多浮华——你大可放心将这种社交网络介绍给家里的妈妈看。将它想像成像沃尔沃那样的社交网络吧。

但在数星期前,Facebook放弃了像Myspace那样的技术策略。这家网站推倒技术之墙,且对外围开发者开放页面源代码。一种名字的称为“Facebook平台”的工具箱被允许让任何程序员——一位无聊的学生或数百万美元的法人——剥开该网站的页面架构,并随意进行编辑,以及实现内部结构的重组。到目前为止,近900多个被公开的应用程序中没有一个是能显著影响人们生活的——在所有的应用程序中,“涂鸦板”(根据其描述,有超过330万的人们下载)使得你能在其他人的页面上进行涂鸦,同时“好友印象”能使你的朋友们化名发表他们对你的真实看法。如果Facebook能够想出一种轻便的方法以卸载这些迷你应用软件,它将更像一个社交网络。Facebook将变为一个足以吞食整个互联网的全能站点。

就一切有关第二人生(SecondLife)的大肆宣传而言,在“虚拟世界”领域,只有Facebook和 MySpace足以与之相提并论。当然,Facebook并没有那种大胸的3D形象,也没有自己的游戏业务和流通币。但互联网的要义在于你并不需要涉足所有的领域。如果我要买东西,我会选择去Amazon,而不是一些至关重要的虚拟商店。甚至在Facebook允许外部应用程序之前,就已有成百万的用户基本知悉了页面的内部秘密。一个典型的Facebook人每天会花上数小时发送信息,写日志或博客条目,还有上传照片,以及和那些同样喜欢Decemberists(一支摇滚乐队)的菜鸟女孩进行有趣交流。Facebook平台不过是扩展了这个交流世界。(据《华尔街时报》报道,从初创到现在,Facebook的主流用户人数已跃升至2400万到2700万的水平。)现在你可以查看本地的天气状况,或在线饲养一只虚拟宠物兔,也可以知晓你的朋友们都在听哪些音乐。除了少部分人也同时使用电子邮件—— 一种实时信息收发系统外,RSS——是Facebook强制性捆绑使用的信息系统,它将创造一个庞大的用户群。用户们再也不必在网上到处漫游了,网络信息将主动送到我们面前来。

如果Facebook确信要变为一个多面的内容聚合平台,可能有些太迟。因为诸如My Yahoo!和iGoogle这样的个人化定制主页已经深入人心,也有一些新潮的个性化主页产品如NetVibes,Slate的Reihan Salam称之为“终极的内容聚合平台”。但是Facebook有一个巨大的内在优势:社会化网络已经建立。是的,另一种方式则是整合Gmail和BBC头条、YouTube视频搜索以及播客目录。若将社会关系与这些内容融合起来,不论如何,此举将使Facebook立即击败其主要竞争对手。通过Facebook的新闻订阅平台,它将能初步看出你的朋友们是何时开始使用一件新产品或服务的。这意味着最佳的附加软件将即刻变得关键起来——到目前为止,Platform(加拿大第四大软件公司)的最大成功在于其提供了一个共享彼此偏好内容的平台,这使其注册用户以每天20万人的速度递增。

毫无疑问的是,Facebook的外围开发者们将进一步致力于为用户提供强大的内容聚合功能。该网站日益增长的用户们,都是具有良好名誉以及干净社会形象的来自公司的精英们。哪一种产品将被附加提供给Facebook的用户群呢?似乎每一家大公司都试图将社会化网络方式注入它们的核心服务域。例如,Netflix(著名的网络视频租赁公司)允许你时刻关注到你的朋友们正在观看什么视频。但是它更像是让你在一个巨大的预制网络上自卖自夸——难怪Netflix的用户们现在都用Facebook来关注密友的情况呢。而且还不仅仅只是商业:正如奥巴马的竞选活动。自五月底以来,已有成千上万的用户要在Facebook上将奥巴马加为好友,还有成百上千的人们加入以奥巴马为主题的群。与传统订制的社会化网络My.BarackObama.com(奥巴马的竞选官网)相比,后者不过区区7万名注册用户。Facebook的社会化网络就像一种传输系统,相较你自创的系统而言,在我看来,外部内容的注入极可能使Facebook变得更为强大。

我认为,外部内容的大量涌入似乎是一个更大,更好的facebook显而易见的路径。不过泛滥的应用程序造成了很大的反感,我在过去一个月统计了15个组别的用户,所有的反馈都围绕着一个主题:“Facebook的应用程序已经足够了!”甚至有的朋友已经开始抱怨。当我添加了12个应用到我的控制面板,我认为这是“宠物”,一个标语提示说“应用程序已满”。这种情况被一位应用程序开发商称作是“应用疲劳,”是网站的一个发展失败的产品。但它也反映了Facebook平台的一个真实挫折——它没有达到预期的目标。我们迄今所看到大多数东西看起来像机场礼品店一样垃圾——仿制品、幸运测试和虚拟礼物。

不要误会我的意思,我很高兴我可以在朋友的涂鸦墙上涂鸦五彩缤纷的玩样。然而,facebook有用的东西都在哪里?听说Facebook计划将增加用于在线支付的 “钱包”服务,我就放心了。但是它要想真正转型,需要一个像Google那样简易的及时通讯系统,还需采用可嵌入收件箱以与Hotmail,Yahoo!等电邮服务商对接。事实上,Facebook并未引入许多的聚合新闻内容平台——真正的新闻,而不是订制而来的新闻——虽然不可避免会牵涉到它们。我不清楚为何Facebook不将这些表面上的潜在元素组合起来,不管是它的新闻办公室或是CEO Mark(也许这家伙也为自己的页面大伤脑筋)都未能回应过我的建议。令我感到烦恼和失望的是,上述这些方案都还没能进入他们的决策议程,尤其是已有传言称Yahoo!将收购Myspace。如果Facebook增加了电子邮件,实时传讯,以及聚合内容平台服务,这将是使它朝Yahoo的综合性与MySpace的流行性所迈出的重要一步。从而,余下的那些网站也将不战而胜。

社会性交际网络站点的力量在变大

主流媒体和传统媒体走到了一个岔路口。上周发生的一系列看似无关但又关联的事件为这个两难处境生动地作了关联。首先是《卫报》被施加了一项禁止报道国会的禁令。而Twitter的用户又接过了报道的接力棒,提供出了有帮助的链接,并向颁布禁令的托克及其法律顾问卡特持续施加公共监督的压力。正如主编阿兰·拉斯布里杰所说:“托克以为花钱可以消灾,但传统媒体《卫报》和新媒体Twitter却联手将其企图掩盖下去的恶行公之于众。

而在第二个事件中,局面就远没有这么和谐了——新老媒体成了死对头。《每日邮报》的专栏作家詹·莫伊尔的那篇关于男孩地带成员斯蒂芬·盖特里死亡的文章被广泛转载之后,在社会各界激起公愤。文中充满了对同性恋群体的抨击或暗示性的憎恶语言,导致大量读者涌到《每日邮报》的网站投诉。然而此事件更多的解释是,她的编辑错误的选题和愚蠢的判断成为了这场网络公愤和广告商抵制的导火索。或许是莫伊尔,或许是她的编辑,或者两者都是,错误地判断了实时网络传播信息的速度和规模,也低估了社会媒体在曝光新闻及快速施加压力方面的力量。《每日邮报》被电子时代的公共暴力狠狠地教育了一课后,BBC会毫无疑问的投上一个嘲讽的微笑。

“禁令事件”过后补充的统计数据解释了托克事件背后的一切。而盖特里事件也随着莫伊尔的文章在Twitter上被一再转发而发展壮大。据 Ofcom的报告称,社交网站正在迅速崛起成为网络用户的主要活动方式。目前拥有社交网站络账户信息的在线用户比例,已经从2年前的22%增长到38%,而每天使用社交网站的用户又占到其中的41%,社交网站用户平均使用时间也在增长。Facebook是在英国规模仅次于Google的社交网站,也是这一趋势的主要受益者。不过,据报告称使用网络工作或学习的人数较以前更少,比例从48%下降到35%。

但是我怀疑,另一种情况还在发生,曾经一度用于研究工作的大部分时间实际上都被消耗在社交网络或“社交网络”上了。因此Twitter上的链接,以及你的朋友或同事在Facebook上讨论的内容,也都在消耗这些时间。对于出版商来说,这是一个艰难时刻,因为它带来了这样一个问题:你要怎么去应对它?最近,一项受 BlogHer、iVillage和Compass 委托的针对美国女性上网习惯的调查显示,女性用户在社交网站上最为活跃。这促使美国哈佛大学尼曼实验室提出疑问:新闻机构对此要做些什么?(美国哈佛大学尼曼实验室研究互联网发展趋势,并对新媒体形式展开思考)而这个问题对于某些美国的新闻机构来说更加迫切。《华盛顿邮报》网站的访问量已经被阿丽安娜·赫芬顿经营了四年的政治博客网站——赫芬顿邮报大举超过。

这里是岔路口:一条路通往由用户控制的交流的新模式,而另外一条老路上,是真正地去“随大流”,还是让受众跟随你,又成为了一个两难的选择。后者可能会赚取更大的利润,最不济也能在短期内保持稳定。但是如果从长期看,后者就会有失去价值或者倒闭关张的风险。如果网络空间也会有导航软件的话,那么这个岔路口就不会成为威胁中那样的事故高发点了。

Facebook帮助品牌激发客户需求

Facebook的首席运营官SherylSandberg说,作为一个社交网站,Facebook计划帮助在其页面上登广告的品牌提高在知名度及认可度。

帕罗奥图本地服务近日号称有来自全世界范围内3亿用户访问,Sandberg表示,大约一半的来访者至少每天登陆一次。具体来说,典型的用户每月花5.8个小时浏览网站自身提供的内容,相比之下,Yahoo用户以3.3小时位居第二。“页面上还有其他地址,你可以链接过去。当然Yahoo提供这些,”Sandberg说,“我们提供的是深入接触。至今为止,我们是用户停留时间最长的网站。”

正如之前所说,今年美国越来越多的广告主都在Facebook投放了常规广告。Sandberg还补充道,使用web 2.0的方式,厂商比一年前得到了更多回报,“我们在扩大用户群,这对我们帮忙很大,我们的广告产品也有了极大的变化。在艰难的经济环境下,广告主和厂商都在寻找价值,”她说。
具体地说,Facebook的首席运营官表明说网络服务可以到达广告“漏斗”的不同方面。在“漏斗”顶端,她说,目标是到达尽可能多的消费者,从而引起关注和需求,底端则实现最终购买行为。搜索巨头Google服务于这个流程中的后半部分目标人群,以及有兴趣寻找和获得某一具体产品的消费者。而Facebook则在流程的开始阶段提供帮助。

“你看看全球的广告花费,那可是一年6400亿美元的交易” Sandberg说,“只满足了10%的需求”,相比之下,“我们在广告市场激发的客户需求达到了90%”她补充道。一大批主要品牌已经在Facebook站点上建立起了免费的/介绍和小组,咖啡连锁店星巴克,以及比萨公司棒约翰是通过此模式实现可信增长的商业典范,她说。她建议试图通过这个方式制造影响的组织要确保他们保持长期的常规发帖,而不是短期的集中投放

关于Twitter,这个微博效用,Sandberg说这两个网站先锋是“部分相同的运转模式。实时信息的快速分享。”然而,她也宣称,Facebook是一个和朋友分享信息的地方,而Twitter则更像一个向大众广播的东西

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